London - Edgware Christian speed dating london Sophia 2000 AEDVery Open-Minded. Comment Name Email Website. Hardwood floors Clean-shaven pubic area. We spent five days trying dating jars 10 different online dating services to figure out which one is the most effective and affordable.
Not that kind of date. Instead, I mean how do you tell how old your Ball jar is? One of the most common emails I receive comes with a description of a jar—e. Luckily, there are some tips and tricks you can use to determine an approximate age for your jar.
First check the logo, which changed fairly frequently until about Rejoice if you find one of those; Buffalo jars are pretty rare. They were first made in Buffalo in and for several years after.
But, you say, how can the date be correct, since you have a jar embossed with a patent date of That was the date when John Mason received his patent for the threaded screw-type closure, and it appears on many different brands of jars. How about that big number on the bottom of many jars?
Does that help date the jar? Click here to move directly to the list of machine-made dating questions. Machine-made bottles will exhibit most or all of the diagnostic characteristics explained and illustrated below. It should be noted that features 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are primary indicators of machine-made manufacture. Feature 2 mold seam diameter is not as strongly diagnostic as the primary indicators as mouth-blown bottles sometimes can have very fine mold seams.
Feature 7 describes a couple glass related features that are quite consistent in machine-made bottles, but not diagnostic, i. Click on the machine-made beer bottle picture above to see an illustration of this bottle showing the major diagnostic characteristics of a typical machine produced bottle.
Vertical side mold seams which usually see the Note box below point 3 for an exception run up to the highest point of the finish and often onto the extreme top finish surface i. The statement about machine-made bottles may seem contradictory finer but more visually distinct but is a function of the higher machine blowing pressure.
Most machine-made bottles have mold seams about the thickness of a hair while most visible mouth-blown mold seams tend to be several times as thick, higher, but more rounded. Mold seam thickness and how high it protrudes [height] is of only moderate use in telling a machine-made bottle from a mouth-blown bottle, though if a bottle fragment has a hair fine mold seam, it is highly likely to be from a machine-made bottle.
There are at least two additional finish related mold seams - one at the top of the finish which encircles either the bore or sometimes the outside of the upper lip portion of the finish sometimes both of these seams are present and a horizontal seam immediately below the finish which circles the extreme upper neck called a "neck ring parting line". Click on the picture to the left to view an illustration which shows both of these seams or click machine-made finish to view an image which shows well the seam below the finish.
Both seams are quite diagnostic of machine manufacture and are usually visible, though the seam at the top of the finish can be hard to see on some bottles - especially if the finish was fire polished. In the glassmaking trade, these seams along with the side mold seams within the finish or just below are referred to as "neck ring" or "neckring" seams since they were formed by the separate neck ring portion of a machine mold Tooley These deviations are discussed on the main Bottle Dating page in a box under Question 2.
Click Exceptions to Question 2 to view this discussion. These are faint, somewhat wandering, hairline seams which if present usually are sporadically visible on the sides of machine-made bottles. The ghost seams are caused by the parison mold parts and if visible enough will be "attached" to the vertical seams in the finish. Click on ghost seam to view a close-up explanatory picture of this attribute.
Be aware that bottles and jars made by early to midth century press-and-blow machines do not usually have ghost seams, since the parison mold was usually one-piece, but will typically have a valve mark on the base see 6 below. A suction scar is present on the base of Owens Automatic Bottle Machine produced bottles.
This distinctive base scar is easier to illustrate than describe; click on suction scar for a picture of a typical scar which exhibits the diagnostic "feathering" that surely indicates Owens machine production same image is below left. This mark is distinctive to the suction process which feeds glass into the bottom of an Owens machine's parison mold. A movie clip showing this process in action is linked at the bottom of this box.
Suction scars can not be produced by feed and flow automatic machines i. P ress-and-blow machines usually have a round valve mark on the base but lack either the suction or parison scars. In any event, the suction scar is never found on mouth-blown bottles though suction scars are sometimes referred to as a pontil scar by the unfamiliar.
See the machine-made section of the Bottle Bases page for more information on these scars. It is likely that other types of suction based automatic bottle machines made in Europe in the s - and possibly later - also produced a suction scar on the base of their products [Pearson ]. However, a large majority of bottles in the U.
The presence of a circular valve mark on the base of a bottle typically a wide mouth bottle or jar is sure evidence of machine-made manufacture by a press-and-blow machine. This is discussed further as Question 14 below. Machine-made bottles tend to have few if any bubbles in the glass and the thickness of the glass is usually more uniform throughout the bottle as compared to mouth-blown bottles.
This is especially true of later machine made bottles, i. The presence or absence of bubbles in the glass and relatively even distribution of the glass throughout the characteristic is not a primary feature of either machine-made or mouth-blown bottles, though there are strong trends.
What these Diagnostic Features Indicate: Bottles with all the noted primary machine-made characteristics 1, 3- 5 including the suction scar on the base point 5 above and picture to the left can date no earlier than and are usually post Though patented and first used to a limited degree in , the first Owens Automatic Bottle Machine licenses were granted to other manufacturers in late making the effective "beginning" i. Bottles which have all the primary characteristics noted above 1, 3, 4 without the suction scar 5 were produced by non-Owens automatic or semi-automatic machines and are somewhat harder to precisely date, though the vast majority post-date also.
Narrow neck press-and-blow machine? It should be noted that one fairly early press-and-blow semi-automatic machine was designed to produce narrow bore bottles. The method used was unusual and may have been unique in bottle-making history: This is accomplished so that there is no perceptible mark upon the bottle showing the joint, and the bottle stands every possible test as to strength. The machine is operated much as all pressing machines are Although products of this machine are not conclusively known a bottle such as the one at this link - offset seams shoe polish bottle - may well be a product of the described machine as there is a distinct and abrupt interface edge at the shoulder where the mold seams for both the body and neck end and are offset.
This little bottle has a moderately narrow neck and a distinct valve or ejection mark on the base indicating press-and-blow machine manufacture. Added evidence to this theory is that an identical shape and size 2 oz.
More specifically, non-Owens machine-made bottles with narrow necks similar to the amber beer bottle pictured earlier will always date after and typically after regardless of what type machine they were produced on since the first blow-and-blow semi-automatic machines capable of producing narrow necked bottles copied after English machines invented somewhat earlier were first made or used at that time in the U.
Boow ; Cable Very few narrow neck bottles made on the Owens machines will pre-date that time also. Bottles or jars with wide mouths like the jar pictured under Question 15 below may occasionally pre-date , to as early as about , since semi-automatic press-and-blow machines were being used to some degree by the mids.
The first production bottles known to have been made on semi-automatic machines were wide mouth Vaseline bottles made by the C. It is thought that probably all pre semi-automatic bottle machine production in the U. The photo below is from the Lewis Hine collection Library of Congress and shows an early, probably O'Neill Barrett semi-automatic press-and-blow 4 mold milk bottle which have relatively wide mouths machine which came with the following caption: No "lung blowers " employed.
Manager says machines are fast coming into play in bottle industry, plans eventually to have machines in place of "carrying in boys. Clarksburg, West Virginia" Library of Congress. This two table semi-automatic machine would have been hand fed with glass furnace likely to the right and does have the two different mold sets with the parison molds where the first "press" part of the cycle took place the set on the right.
Blowing air would have been supplied by the hose visible at the top of the set of blow molds to the left, where the final "blow" part of the cycle took place. This allows for a high probability begin date of around to for most wide mouth, machine-made bottles and jars Illinois Glass Company , , However, since the products of automatic and semi-automatic non-Owens machines date from the same era as the Owens machine and are largely indistinguishable, they are all considered together on this machine-made bottle dating page.
Mouth-blown to Machine-made Transition Era: The transition from mouth-blown to machine-made bottles was a fairly long and circuitous road. Between and about or , the only fully automatic machine was the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine and until the late s they were granting exclusive licenses for various categories of bottles. In about , reliable gob-feeders became available which converted most types of semi-automatic machines to fully automatic at a lower cost than the Owens Machines.
For instance the Carr-Lowery Glass Company Baltimore, MD began automatic bottle making in , but retained some hand-blowing operations until at least when Dr. Toulouse published Bottle Makers and Their Marks! In one glass factory a wall had to be erected between the hand operations and the newly installed machine to prevent sabotage. In another instance, worker opposition was so strong that the machine operations were abandoned!
These numbers help to determine general dating break probabilities for both machine-made and mouth-blown bottles. Likewise, the probability that a bottle exhibiting mouth-blown hand-made diagnostic features dating prior to the mids is very high and after the s is very low, though not impossible as noted above.
The link below allows a user to view an amazing short movie clip that shows two different early Owens Automatic Bottle Machines in operation. The first machine is the "Machine 5" which the film clip script notes as having been made in in Toledo, Ohio. This was apparently the earliest of the viable commercial machines, and in fact, the clip was made to help promote and sell the machine to potential buyers. The first person shown operating Machine 5 is Emil Bock, a mechanical genius who worked with Michael Owens from the "bicycle pump" early machine experimentation days s and transformed Mike's ideas into workable steel machines.
Michael Owens is the second person shown picking up and examining a couple beer bottles. This clip is also reported to be the only movie ever made showing Michael Owens who was reputed to be "camera shy.
Film clip is compliments of the Owens-Illinois Glass Company. Many thanks to Phil Perry - a senior engineer with that company - who graciously provided this clip. Film clip of an early Owens Automatic Bottle Machine in operation. Machine-made Bottle Dating As with mouth-blown bottles, more precise dating of a machine-made bottle can be done with some confidence by using one or more of the various diagnostic features outlined in the questions on this page. Unlike the first portions of the Dating key Questions 1 through 3 on the main Bottle Dating page; 4 through 7 on the Mouth-blown bottles portion of the dating key , each question on this page is an independent dating tool for which the response is not predicated on the outcome of any of the other questions.
Thus, these questions do not have to be viewed in order. The question numbers on this page continue where they left off on the mouth-blown bottle portion of the key. Is the bottle glass color aqua aquamarine or very light green , essentially colorless clear , or a color other than colorless or aqua? Are there "bubbles" present in the glass? Does the bottle have the following statement embossed on its side or on the base?
Does the bottle base have similar markings to those on the bottle pictured? These markings are those of the Owens-Illinois Glass Company. Does the bottle have a finish lip that was sealed with a cork, sealed with an externally threaded screw cap, or sealed with some other type closure? Does the bottle have embossed or labeled contents or volume capacity information?
Does all or a portion of the bottle base have a textured pattern, i. Read through each of the questions to see which have pertinence to the bottle you wish to date. Hyperlink to other web pages that are suggested in each question for added information and then read the summary statement at the end of this page which will give some suggestions on where on this website a user could or should proceed to.
Keep track of the specific diagnostic feature date ranges listed in each question you consult, and once to the end of the page, use that information to ascertain the likely production date range of your bottle. As explained previously above, be aware that the "earliest" date used in the questions is not absolute. There were some wide mouth, semi-automatic machine produced bottles albeit a very low percentage which had machine-made characteristics minus a suction scar than can date back as early as the mids.
Lets begin with Question 8 right below Is the bottle glass color: A color other than colorless or aqua? The color of the glass in a machine-made bottle can, to a limited degree, be useful in dating. As with all of the dating points on this page, color must be considered in conjunction with other diagnostic characteristics in arriving at a probable date or date range for any given bottle - the "preponderance of evidence" concept. With the increasing dominance of the automatic bottle machine in the s and on, bottle shapes, sizes, and colors became more and more standardized and uniform, i.
Glass making technology progressed so that colorless aka "clear" glass became much cheaper to produce and displaced aqua as the dominant bottle glass color for containers where being able to see the products natural color was an important consideration. An assortment of other colors were still common - particularly amber and to some degree, cobalt blue - but the range of common colors present in machine-made bottles was restricted compared to bottles produced in the 19th century.
Bottle made from manganese dioxide decolorized glass exhibiting a slight lavender cast in the thick portions of the glass. Small utility bottle - ca. Click on Groves Chill Tonic to view a picture of an aqua medicinal from the era. The bottle pictured in Question 9 below with a plethora of bubbles in the glass would be considered a particular deep shade of aqua. The amount of aqua glass bottles produced declines throughout this period so that by the mid to late s the dominant colors for machine-made bottles excluding soda bottles and canning jars is colorless or amber.
Royal Crown Cola, Dr. Pepper both a greenish aqua , and Coca-Cola "Georgia Green" are familiar examples of late era aqua bottles Toulouse For more information on this color, click a qua to go to its description on the Bottle Colors page.
Bottle is of largely colorless aka "clear" glass Machine-made bottles with colorless glass can date from any time after , though there is a relatively reliable dating break possible based on the type of colorless glass.
Decolorizing is in essence neutralizing the effects of the iron and carbonaceous impurities in the glass mix in order to obtain as colorless of glass as possible.
The primary physical masking agents used in the first half of the 20th century were manganese dioxide, selenium, and arsenic. All potentially leave a very slight residual color to the glass that is usually visible when looking closely at the thickest portion of the base or sides. For more information click colorless glass to go to that section of the Bottle Colors page.
Manganese dioxide causes the glass to have a very slight lavender or amethyst tint which is amplified to varying degrees with exposure to sunlight or artificial radiation. When selenium or arsenic or a combination of the two is used to decolorize glass, it often leaves a very faint "straw" cast to the thick glass portions which is not affected or intensified by sunlight.
It has been thought for many years that selenium produced the "straw" cast to otherwise colorless - and almost exclusively - machine-made bottles. However, it is now thought to be a function of using arsenic - probably in tandem with selenium - as the decolorizer [Tooley ; Lockhart pers. The following dating refinements are possible with colorless machine-made bottles: The large majority of machine-made bottles with a slight to moderate lavender or amethyst tint - indicating manganese oxide was used as the decolorizer - date between and the early s top picture above right; click small amethyst wide-mouth bottle for a picture of this entire bottle though some can date as late as the s.
Machine-made s oda bottles were generally not decolorized with manganese after Lockhart a. Based on empirical observations, one or both of these decolorizers are still in use today although after the s other decolorizing agents and glass producing processes were used resulting in less abundant "straw" tinted bottles.
Bottle made of some other color of glass If the bottle has some other glass color no useful general dating information is possible. Move to the other questions below for more dating opportunities.
If so, how many and what size and shape? Bubbles in the shoulder glass of a bottle. This is an extreme example of the number of bubbles to be found in a bottle. This is a Mexican made liquor bottle intended for the U. The image to the left is a close-up of a bottle with bubbles in atypically high quantity for illustrative purposes. Bubbles are caused by an assortment of irregularities in the production process including a glass pot or tank that was too hot or not full enough, glass cut-off or shearing irregularities, and various gob feeder problems.
In the glass making industry, small bubbles were referred to as "seeds" and larger bubbles as "blisters" Tooley Similar to the color question above, the presence of bubbles in the glass can help some in pinning down the date of a machine bottle, but must be used in conjunction with other features to more confidently narrow down a date range as it is not conclusive by itself.
More specifically, there appears to have been an increase in the homogeneity and uniformity of glass as the technological advances of the machine era proceeded. However, this feature is still a tenuous one since there are many early machine-made bottles with few or no bubbles.
As a general rule of thumb, earlier machine-made bottles and jars i. The absence of bubbles or presence of only a very few small "seed" bubbles less than a pin-head in size or very narrow "V" shaped bubbles, denotes a bottle that is more likely to date from or after the s. If one takes a look at glass bottles found in supermarkets today they would be hard pressed to find even one bubble in all the bottles looked at combined as technology has all but eradicated this flaw in glassmaking.
This embossing was legally required on all liquor bottles sold in the U. This requirement was intended to discourage the re-use of bottles by bootleggers and moonshiners, though the biggest discouragement to that illicit activity was that liquor was now legally available. On January 1st, all liquor sold in the United States was required to be in bottles that had the above statement embossed in the glass Busch The statement was not required on wine or beer bottles, the latter category which was - and to some degree still is - bottled in re-useable bottles.
If your bottle has this statement embossed in the glass, it is a machine-made liquor bottle that dates between and the mids. This inscription is found only on machine-made bottles, with the rare exception of some Mexican-made for the U.